Принципы технического анализа 3
Market participants never individually agree about the price of a currency, but the overall consensus of the market produces the fair value for the currency. Market price movements are never in one direction for long. A currency may strengthen, then weaken and strengthen again. The technician's challenge is to determine the levels to which a currency will zig up running into selling pressure (resistance level) and the levels to which a currency will zag down running into buying interest (support level). The use of Technical Analysis (ТА) in forecasting time series data continues to grow in popularity, with much of the growth resulting from the increasing need for accurate and timely forecasts of diverse instruments in a global market place. The basic tenets of traditional Technical Analysis, measuring direction and speed of price movement remain little hanged, however.
to estimate — оценивать, намечать
о: to grasp - понимать
i to predict — предсказывать
to pinpoint - определять точно
л assumption -предположение, допущение
The first concept to grasp is that technicians believe that all available information (historical data, forecasts and market expectations) is being acted on and is reflected in the price. Given market generated data (price, volume, open interest etc), technicians measure direction using a variety of methods. First, there is the trend, which shows the direction in which prices are moving, within different time frames-long term to intra-day. Second, there are chart patterns, which can pinpoint forecasts in both direction and magnitude. The patterns can be in the form of continuation or reversal and show clearly the breakout level and extension targets. Third, momentum studies can be used to gauge changes in trend and probable direction, as well as the timing of moves.
• History repeats
Technical analysis is based on human psychology which tends not to change. The assumption made is that the key to understanding the future lies in the past. Patterns exist. Patterns can estimate future direction. The theory here is that a trend in place is more likely to continue than reverse. People use ТА to identify patterns so as to ride the rising trends, until indicators show signs of a reversal.
• Price information is complete or markets discount everything
Anything that can affect the market price of a commodity — political rumours, changing economic conditions or even psychological perceptions, is already reflected in the market price. Price action according to Technical Analysts should reflect actual shifts in Supply and Demand. Example: Assume the price of gold is increasing. Economists may say that there is a plenty of gold supply and that prices should not be increasing. The market would say that we know there is plenty of gold supply, the price reflects this but demand for gold has increased and therefore prices should be increasing. The weaknesses of fundamental analysis as a rule are complemented by technical forecasting. The latter captures market sentiment, mood and expectations. But on the other hand history does not repeat itself exactly and patterns do not occur in exactly the same way. Circumstances may change and what has worked in the past will not always work in the future. Therefore any trading plan needs to be correctly implemented by using both aproaches: fundamental and technical. If both results are in agreement, the confidence in a forecast is greatly enhanced. Newcomers to the forecasting should observe some guidelines that may be of help. Basic framework of forecasting implies establishing outside markets contacts. Through dialogues the newcomer gains the market participants' rationale behind the forecast. Reading market documents helps to broaden perspective and makes it easier to single out key bullish and bearish fundamental factors. When new to the markets one should devote time to writing forecasts focusing his attention on the most important factors, identifying key points and patterns as they form. Step bv step the newcomer realises that markets sometimes behave irrationally. It is not easy to beat the markets because there are too many variables at work. But making market decisions and assuming responsibility the individual acquires experience in trading the market.
reverse - поворот назад to ride trends - использовать тренды
au to discount — обесценивать
э to complement -дополнять
э 'confidence —уверенность
о: to enhance - усиливать
e to affect — влиять
e perception — ощущение, восприятие
ai supply — предложение
cu demand - спрос
to occur - происходить, случаться
i to implement — претворять в жизнь, осуществлять
framework — каркас, структура
i: to beat smth. - обставить, побить
Э variable - переменная